Communications and investor relations measurement (in the financial and investment community) is often binary — one-zero, on-off, up-down. Did our stock go up? Are analysts recommending our stock? More than before?
A complex cluster of stakeholders — portfolio managers, stockbrokers, institutional investors, individual investors and the financial media — couldn’t possibly be adequately benchmarked and tracked in simple binary terms. Ideally we should be looking not only at outputs (the how much and how good) but also outcomes (with what effect).
For example, with a hat tip to material from an Institute for Public Relations’ Measurement Commission paper and with some additional original thinking injected: